27.5.2020 7:00
Orjatsaari Laatokassa. Lappeenrannan museot,
CC BY-NC-ND 4.0
The Atlantic Monthlyssa toukokuussa 1864 julkaistun matkakertomuksen amerikkalaiset matkalaiset ohittivat Valamon nopeasti, aikoen palata sinne takaisin. Tämä jätti heille mahdollisuuden tutustua laivan päätesatamaan eli Sortavalaan. Kuvauksessa mainitut krinoliinit kaventavat matkan todennäköisen ajoituksen 1860-luvun alun kesiin.
After some fifteen or twenty miles from the island, we approached the rocky archipelago in which the lake terminates at its northern end,—a gradual transition from water to land. Masses of gray granite, wooded wherever the hardy Northern firs could strike root, rose on all sides, divided by deep and narrow channels. "This is the scheer," said our captain, using a word which recalled to my mind, at once, the Swedish skär, and the English skerry, used alike to denote a coast-group of rocky islets. The rock encroached more and more as we advanced; and finally, as if sure of its victory over the lake, gave place, here and there, to levels of turf, gardens, and cottages. Then followed a calm, land-locked basin, surrounded with harvest-fields, and the spire of Serdopol arose before us.
Of this town I may report that it is called, in Finnish, Sordovala, and was founded about the year 1640. Its history has no doubt been very important to its inhabitants, but I do not presume that it would be interesting to the world, and therefore spare myself a great deal of laborious research. Small as it is, and so secluded that Ladoga seems a world's highway in comparison with its quiet harbor, it nevertheless holds three races and three languages in its modest bounds. The government and its tongue are Russian; the people are mostly Finnish, with a very thin upper-crust of Swedish tradition, whence the latter language is cultivated as a sign of aristocracy.
We landed on a broad wooden pier, and entered the town through a crowd which was composed of all these elements. There was to be a fair on the morrow, and from the northern shore of the lake, as well as the wild inland region towards the Saïma, the people had collected for trade, gossip, and festivity. Children in ragged garments of hemp, bleached upon their bodies, impudently begged for pocket-money; women in scarlet kerchiefs curiously scrutinized us; peasants carried bundles of freshly mown grass to the horses which were exposed for sale; ladies with Hungarian hats crushed their crinolines into queer old cabriolets; gentlemen with business-faces and an aspect of wealth smoked paper cigars; and numbers of hucksters offered baskets of biscuit and cakes, of a disagreeable yellow color and great apparent toughness. It was a repetition, with slight variations, of a village-fair anywhere else, or an election-day in America.
Passing through the roughly paved and somewhat dirty streets, past shops full of primitive hardware, groceries which emitted powerful whiffs of salt fish or new leather, bakeries with crisp padlocks of bread in the windows, drinking-houses plentifully supplied with qvass and vodki, and, finally, the one watch-maker, and the vender of paper, pens, and Finnish almanacs, we reached a broad suburban street, whose substantial houses, with their courts and gardens, hinted at the aristocracy of Serdopol. The inn, with its Swedish sign, was large and comfortable, and a peep into the open windows disclosed as pleasant quarters as a traveller could wish. A little farther the town ceased, and we found ourselves upon a rough, sloping common, at the top of which stood the church with its neighboring belfry. It was unmistakably Lutheran in appearance,—very plain and massive and sober in color, with a steep roof for shedding snow. The only attempt at ornament was a fanciful shingle-mosaic, but in pattern only, not in color. Across the common ran a double row of small booths, which had just been erected for the coming fair; and sturdy young fellows from the country, with their rough carts and shaggy ponies, were gathering along the highway, to skirmish a little in advance of their bargains.
The road enticed us onward, into the country. On our left, a long slope descended to an upper arm of the harbor, the head of which we saw to be near at hand. The opposite shore was fairly laid out in grain-fields, through which cropped out, here and there, long walls of granite, rising higher and higher towards the west, until they culminated in the round, hard forehead of a lofty hill. There was no other point within easy reach which promised much of a view; so, rounding the head of the bay, we addressed ourselves to climbing the rocks, somewhat to the surprise of the herd-boys, as they drove their cows into the town to be milked.
Once off the cultivated land, we found the hill a very garden of wild blooms. Every step and shelf of the rocks was cushioned with tricolored violets, white anemones, and a succulent, moss-like plant with a golden flower. Higher up there were sheets of fire-red pinks, and on the summit an unbroken carpet of the dwarf whortleberry, with its waxen bells. Light exhalations seemed to rise from the damp hollows, and drift towards us; but they resolved themselves into swarms of mosquitoes, and would have made the hill-top untenable, had they not been dispersed by a sudden breeze. We sat down upon a rock and contemplated the widespread panorama. It was nine o'clock, and the sun, near his setting, cast long gleams of pale light through the clouds, softening the green of the fields and forests where they fell, and turning the moist evening haze into lustrous pearl. Inlets of the lake here and there crept in between the rocky hills; broad stretches of gently undulating grain-land were dotted with the houses, barns, and clustered stables of the Finnish farmers; in the distance arose the smokes of two villages; and beyond all, as we looked inland, ran the sombre ridges of the fir-clad hills. Below us, on the right, the yellow houses of the town shone in the subdued light,—the only bright spot in the landscape, which elsewhere seemed to be overlaid with a tint of dark, transparent gray. It was wonderfully silent. Not a bird twittered; no bleat of sheep or low of cattle was heard from the grassy fields; no shout of children, or evening hail from the returning boats of the fishers. Over all the land brooded an atmosphere of sleep, of serene, perpetual peace. To sit and look upon it was in itself a refreshment like that of healthy slumber. The restless devil which lurks in the human brain was quieted for the time, and we dreamed—knowing all the while the vanity of the dream—of a pastoral life in some such spot, among as ignorant and simple-hearted a people, ourselves as untroubled by the agitations of the world.
We had scarce inhaled—or, rather, insuded, to coin a paradoxical word for a sensation which seems to enter at every pore—the profound quiet and its suggestive fancies for the space of half an hour, when the wind fell at the going down of the sun, and the humming mist of mosquitoes arose again. Returning to the town, we halted at the top of the common to watch the farmers of the neighborhood at their horse-dealing. Very hard, keen, weather-browned faces had they, eyes tight-set for the main chance, mouths worn thin by biting farthings, and hands whose hard fingers crooked with holding fast what they had earned. Faces almost of the Yankee type, many of them, but relieved by the twinkling of a humorous faculty or the wild gleam of imagination. The shaggy little horses, of a dun or dull tan-color, seemed to understand that their best performance was required, and rushed up and down the road with an amazing exhibition of mettle. I could understand nothing of the Finnish tongue except its music; but it was easy to perceive that the remarks of the crowd were shrewd, intelligent, and racy. One young fellow, less observant, accosted us in the hope that we might be purchasers. The boys, suspecting that we were as green as we were evidently foreign, held out their hands for alms, with a very unsuccessful air of distress, but readily succumbed to the Russian interjection "proch" (be off!) the repetition of which, they understood, was a reproach.
That night we slept on the velvet couches of the cabin, having the spacious apartment to ourselves. The bright young officer had left for the copper mines, the pilgrims were at Valaam, and our stout, benignant captain looked upon us as his only faithful passengers. The stewards, indeed, carried their kindness beyond reasonable anticipations. They brought us real pillows and other conveniences, bolted the doors against nightly intruders, and in the morning conducted us into the pantry, to wash our faces in the basin sacred to dishes. After I had completed my ablutions, I turned dumbly, with dripping face and extended hands, for a towel. My steward understood the silent appeal, and, taking a napkin from a plate of bread, presented it with alacrity. I made use of it, I confess, but hastened out of the pantry, lest I should happen to see it restored to its former place. How not to observe is a faculty as necessary to the traveller as its reverse. I was reminded of this truth at dinner, when I saw the same steward take a napkin (probably my towel!) from under his arm, to wipe both his face and a plate which he carried. To speak mildly, these people on Lake Ladoga are not sensitive in regard to the contact of individualities. But the main point is to avoid seeing what you don't like.
26.5.2020 7:00
The Atlantic Monthlyssa julkaistun matkakertomuksen matkalaiset yllättyivät, kun laivan pysähtyessä Käkisalmeen kaupunkia ei näkynyt ollenkaan. Siihen tutustumiseen jäi aikaa vähemmän kuin moderneilla risteilyturisteilla. Eikä kuljetus ollut yhtä mukava.
"But where is Kexholm?
"A verst inland," says the captain; "and I will give you just half an hour to see it.
There were a score of peasants, with clumsy two-wheeled carts and shaggy ponies at the landing. Into one of these we clambered, gave the word of command, and were whirled off at a gallop. There may have been some elasticity in the horse, but there certainly was none in the cart. It was a perfect conductor, and the shock with which it passed over stones and leaped ruts was instantly communicated to the os sacrum, passing thence along the vertebræ, to discharge itself in the teeth. Our driver was a sunburnt Finn, who was bent upon performing his share of the contract, in order that he might afterwards with a better face demand a ruble. On receiving just the half, however, he put it into his pocket, without a word of remonstrance.
"Suomi?" I asked, calling up a Finnish word with an effort.
"Suomi-laïnen" he answered, proudly enough, though the exact meaning is, "I am a Swamplander.
Kuvaaja Tommi Nummelin CC BY-SA 4.0, Wikimedia
Kexholm, which was founded in 1295, has attained since then a population of several hundreds. Grass grows between the cobble-stones of its broad streets, but the houses are altogether so bright, so clean, so substantially comfortable, and the geraniums and roses peeping out between snowy curtains in almost every window suggested such cozy interiors, that I found myself quite attracted towards the plain little town. "Here," said I to P., "is a nook which is really out of the world. No need of a monastery, where you have such perfect seclusion, and the indispensable solace of natural society to make it endurable." Pleasant faces occasionally looked out, curiously, at the impetuous strangers: had they known our nationality, I fancy the whole population would have run together. Reaching the last house, nestled among twinkling birch-trees on a bend of the river beyond, we turned about, and made for the fortress,—another conquest of the Great Peter. Its low ramparts had a shabby, neglected look; an old drawbridge spanned the moat, and there was no sentinel to challenge us as we galloped across. In and out again, and down the long, quiet street, and over the jolting level to the top of the sandhill,—we had seen Kexholm in half an hour.
25.5.2020 7:00
The Atlantic Monthly julkaisi toukokuussa 1864 matkakertomuksen A cruise on Lake Ladoga, jossa anonymisoidut P, Q ja R matkustavat höyrylaiva Valamolla Pietarista Sortavalaan. August Schaumanin muistelmien mukaan Valamo oli aloittanut liikennöintinsä vuonna 1845 eli matkan ajoitus jää varsin epätarkaksi.

Ensimmäinen yöpyminen oli Konevitsassa, jossa matkalaiset näkivät tarpeelliseksi tutustua Hevoskiveen (Konj-kamen, Конь-камень), josta en ollut koskaan kuullutkaan. Wikipedian mukaan se on ollut karjalaisten pakanallinen uhripaikka ja sijaitsee noin kilometrin luostarista pohjoiskoilliseen Pyhävuoren länsirinteen juurella.
Hevoskivi 2000-luvulla. Kuvaaja AB, CC BY-SA 3.0, Wikimedia
The captain promised to leave for Kexholm at eight, which left us only an hour for a visit to the Konkamen, or Horse-Rock, distant a mile, in the woods. P. engaged as guide a long-haired acolyte, who informed us that he had formerly been a lithographer in St. Petersburg. We did not ascertain the cause of his retirement from the world: his features were too commonplace to suggest a romance. Through the mist, which still hung heavy on the lake, we plunged into the fir-wood, and hurried on over its uneven carpet of moss and dwarf whortleberries. Small gray boulders then began to crop out, and gradually became so thick that the trees thrust them aside as they grew. All at once the wood opened on a rye-field belonging to the monks, and a short turn to the right brought us to a huge rock, of irregular shape, about forty feet in diameter by twenty in height. The crest overhung the base on all sides except one, up which a wooden staircase led to a small square chapel perched upon the summit.
The legends attached to this rock are various, but the most authentic seems to be, that in the ages when the Carelians were still heathen, they were accustomed to place their cattle upon this island in summer, as a protection against the wolves, first sacrificing a horse upon the rock. Whether their deity was the Perun of the ancient Russians or the Jumala of the Finns is not stated; the inhabitants at the present day say, of course, the Devil. The name of the rock may also be translated "Petrified Horse," and some have endeavored to make out a resemblance to that animal, in its form. Our acolyte, for instance, insisted thereupon, and argued very logically—"Why, if you omit the head and legs, you must see that it is exactly like a horse." The peasants say that the Devil had his residence in the stone, and point to a hole which he made, on being forced by the exorcisms of Saint Arsenius to take his departure. A reference to the legend is also indicated in the name of the island, Konewitz,—which our friend, the officer, gave to me in French as Chevalisé, or, in literal English, The Horsefied.
The stones and bushes were dripping from the visitation of the mist, and the mosquitoes were busy with my face and hands while I made a rapid drawing of the place. The quick chimes of the monastery, through which we fancied we could hear the warning boat-bell, suddenly pierced through the forest, recalling us. The Valamo had her steam up, when we arrived, and was only waiting for her rival, the Letuchie (Flyer), to get out of our way. As we moved from the shore, a puff of wind blew away the fog, and the stately white monastery, crowned with its bunch of green domes, stood for a moment clear and bright in the morning sun. Our pilgrims bent, bareheaded, in devotional farewell; the golden crosses sparkled an answer, and, the fog rushed down again like a falling curtain.
24.5.2020 7:00
Blogiluonnoksistani löysin tämän kokoelman, johon olin poiminut tetoja otsikon Sjöfarande alta. Mutta olinko käynyt kaikki lehdet järjestelmällisesti läpi vai tehnyt hakuja? Todennäköisesti jälkimmäistä. Opetus: merkkaa muistiin! (Juu, olisin voinut tarkistaa selatessani kyseisen vuosikerran noin viikko sitten, mutta oli muuta mielessä. Mahdollisimman tarkkoja muistiinpanoja tehdessäni.)

Inrikes tidningar 28.5.1761: Turkuun suolaa Portugalin Setúbalista
Inrikes tidningar 15.6.1761: Helsinkiin Tallinnasta maltaita, ruista, pellavaa ja hamppua, mutta Jurricka Jurri (laivurin nimi?) on tuonut suolanvihreää (?) lihaa. Lyypekkiin lähti yksinkertaisia lautoja.
Inrikes tidningar 13.7.1761: Helsinkiin suolaa Espanjasta
Inrikes tidningar 20.7.1761: Loviisaan suolaa kapungin omissa pitkän matkan laivoissa, joista kaksi tulossa Välimereltä ja kolmas Göteborgista.
Inrikes tidningar 27.7.1761: Turkuun hamppua ja pellavaa Pernajasta ja viiniä Bordeauxista. Helsinkiin lihaa Haminasta ja Ibizasta suolaa, rusinoita ja viiniä.
Inrikes tidningar 24.8.1761: Turusta on lähtenyt Amsterdamiin tervaa ja rautaa, Riikaan tervaa. Helsinkiin on tuotu taas Virosta suolavihreää lihaa eli joku sitä täällä osti ja söi.
Inrikes tidningar 31.8.1761: Helsinkiin Tanskasta hiekkaa painolastina.

Inrikes tidningar 5.10.1761: Tukholmaan tullut Vaasasta tervaa, traania ja elintarvikkeita, Kokkolasta tervaa ja elintarvikkeita, Uudestakaupungista elintarvikkeita ja tuohta, Naantalista elintarvikkeita, Porvoosta ruista ja ruisjauhoa, Porista eläimiä ja polttopuuta. Sato oli saatu korjttua ja meri ei vielä ollut jäässä.
Inrikes tidningar 8.10.1761: Tukholmaan edelleen Porista lihaa, voita, eläimiä ja polttopuuta, Tammisaaresta eläimiä, polttopuuta ja humalaa, Oulusta lohta, voita, talia ja tervaa, Naantalista lihaa, Loviisasta viljaa, Turusta lihaa, elintarvikkeita, ruisjauhoja ja kangasta, Raahesta voita, lihaa ja tervaa, Porvoosta ruista.
Inrikes tidningar 12.10.1761: Tukholmaan Turusta kangasta, jauhoja ja elintarvikkeita, Uudestakaupungista polttopuita, tuohta ja lihaa sekä Helsingistä lautoja
23.5.2020 7:00
1) Lainasin jokin aika sitten John Patersonin matkakertomusta. Paterson oli saanut kunniatohtorin arvon Turun akatemialta ja aika hauka oli tämäkin pätkä kesältä 1819:
"Hän kysyi, mihinkä tohtorinhattuni oli joutunut. Kerroin hänelle että kaksi vuotta sitten olin sen kerran maksanut, mutta sitä ei ollut koskaan minulle lähetetty tai se ei ainakaan ollut minulle perille tullut. „Ette voi", hän sanoi, „esiintyä Turun kaduilla ilman sitä, koska näyttäisi siltä kuin ette antaisi mitään arvoa sille tohtoriudelle, jonka olemme teille antaneet." - „Oli miten oli", minä vastasin, „minulla ei ole hattua, enkä ole halukas maksamaan kahdesti hatustani." - „Siinä tapauksessa", hän vastasi, „saatte yhden minun hatuistani käyttääksenne sitä sillä aikaa kuin olette täällä." "
Turku. Eos 17/1854
2) Liittyen edelleen Turkuun sekä taannoiseen kolmiosaiseen sarjaani lahjonnasta (osa 1, osa 2 ja osa 3) ja keskiviikon 1800-luvun osaan passisarjasta opaskirjasta A hand-book for travellers in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Russia :being a guide to the principal routes in those countries : with a minute description of Copenhagen, Stockholm, St. Petersburg and Moscow. (1839) ote, joka kertoo kahden taalarin vaikutuksesta virkamieheen:
Before quitting Abo, a new Finnish passport must be obtained from the governor, but there is no occasion to present yourself in order to procure it. The ex pense is trifling, about 3s. English, and the delay, supposing you to be in a hurry, will depend materially on the amount of stimulus administered to the officer. I was, at first, afraid to make any overtures ofthis kind to a man, whose uniform was certainly not that of a private soldier, and whose breast was decorated with a profusion of crosses, ribands, &c. ; but at length his ob ject was so obvious, that I told him plainly how anxious we were to proceed, and if our passports could be procured in a couple of hours, I should be glad to make him some recompense for his trouble. All difficulties vanished at once; the governor who five minutes before was gone into the country, was now in his own house; and his secretary, who was fast asleep, was now in his ofiice. True to his promise, the precious document was brought to us within the appointed time, and a two-dollar note so affected our new friend’s sensibility, that I had serious apprehensions of his bestowing upon us a fraternal embrace. 
3) Kokosin taannoin linkit Miikka Vuorelan twiittisarjaan. Se on jatkunut:
Koska Vuorela tutkii historiallista kriminologiaa, hän joutui leikejakeluni kohteeksi, kun törmäsin mestausuutiseen, jossa huomautettiin, että mestattu oli jokin aikaa aikaisemmin ollut sotilasvartiossa todistamassa vastaavaa rankaisua. Pelotevaikutus ei siis tehonnut. Vuorela kommentoi kohteliaasti: "Hyvä löytö! Julkisten teloitusten ja ruoskimisten osalta tapahtui juuri 1700-luvun aikana muutos, kun pelotuksen sijaan ne alkoivat herättää inhoa. On arveltu, että kansa alkoi kokea, että rangaistut olivatkin itse asiassa "meitä" ja rankaisijat "heitä", eikä päinvastoin."

4) Kokosin torstaiksi soijakastikekeskustelun niin vauhdikkaasti, että unohtui tarkistaa 1700-luvun keittokirjojen klassikko. Laika Nevalainen paikkasi: "Kurkistin nopsaan Cajsa Wargin keittokirjaan ja ymmärränkö oikein, että tässä tehdään itse soijaa sienistä? Loppu antaa osviittaa käyttötarkoituksista.". Ohjeen voi lukea esim. täältä.  Ritva Kylli täydensi: "Sienistä on ilmeisesti tehty 1700-luvun jälkipuoliskolla soijaa myös Viron suunnalla. Mainio lähiruokainnovaatio kalliin ja hankalasti saatavan tuontisoijan tilalle. Ja hyvä osoitus siitä, miten ihmiset ovat Euroopan pohjoisosissa tavoitelleet umamin makua jo hyvinkin pitkään."